Figure 8.12A and B demonstrate that IM3 products of different combinations can share the same frequency position for in-band and out-of-band IM, respectively. 3. The intermodulation-product table (.imt) file is a user-defined table of mixer intermodulation (IM) products generated at the IF output due to the mixing of a single tone LO and a single tone RF input signal. The strongest IM products are the two so-called 3rd order products produced by two adjacent transmitters operating at frequency f1 and frequency f2, where f1 is lower than f2. 1 The spectrum of the mixer output in a transmitter for three cases; mixer is a linear multiplier with the multi-carrier band starting at (a) f = 0 and (b) f = fB1 and (c) mixer is a nonlinear device with the multi-carrier band starting at f = fB1 . Measured baseband output spectrum of a PA at the output power of 24 dBm. 2393-2402. The intermodulation product table (.imt) file is a user-defined table of mixer intermodulation (IM) products between the LO and input signal. For this, the mixer is given two sine wave signals that have a small frequency difference. As these metrics are more applicable at the system level, rather than at the device level, they are hard to use directly in compact modeling. Another example is seen from strong in-band, adjacent-channel signals. Formation of IM products (vertical gray arrows): (A) In-band IM products resulting from conventional multisine excitation share the same location as those of the main tones. Stephen Harman, Aveillant Ltd., Cambridge, U.K. Jason Zhang, Jonas Urbonas and Giampiero Esposito, Maury Microwave, Ontario, Calif. Andrea Arias-Purdue and Petra Rowell, Teledyne Technologies, Thousand Oaks, Calif. Spur Calculator As for the frequency resolution, the frequencies chosen are multiples of the lowest frequency. Still another problem caused by letting strong out-of-band signals reach the receiver is the problem of intermodulation products. To characterize it, several people have proposed nonlinear models. The input power level into the amplifier is increased by 1 dB in each successive frame. If instead the balanced configuration of Figure 4.21 is used, the negative half of the signal is transferred to the output through a second switch, and is a bit smaller in magnitude than it ought to be. [2] and in Section 8.3.1 it was shown that the IM products located around the fundamental frequency are the odd-order products and their frequencies are: Eq. 4 The spectrum of the mixer output in a receiver for three cases; mixer is a linear multiplier with the multi-carrier band starting at (a) f = fLO and (b) f = fLO + fB1 , and (c) mixer is a nonlinear device with the multi-carrier band starting at f = fLO + fB1 . (8.45) with (A) offset multisine excitation and (B) conventional multisine excitation. When the mixer is considered a nonlinear device, the frequency spectrum is derived by generating the intermodulation products of the multi-carrier signal at f = fLO + fB1 and then translated down to the low pass area to get the first downconverted signal. Note where those intermodulation products fall? It relates your mixer IM output level to the output signal level. Fig. The problem is that your receiver can only handle a certain amount of radio frequency energy in its front end. For example, let us imagine that the switch mixer of Figure 4.17 introduces some quadratic (second-order) distortion, as shown in Figure 4.7. Visible intermodulation products are seen as small spurs at 280 MHz and 265 MHz. I first experienced this hill when a friend of mine got his ham radio operator's license and lived only a block from the site. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Use the IMT Mixer to perform frequency translation defined in an intermodulation table (see,,, and) for a single tone carrier mixed with a local oscillator (LO) signal. Figure 8.13. The problem is that the undesired signal drives the receiver front end into a nonlinear operating region, and that has the effect of increasing harmonic distortion. Fax: (781) 769-5037, For magazine subscriptions and newsletter customer service: Skellern, "A Realistic Large-signal MESFET Model for SPICE," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques , Vol. However it is important to have a planning measure for the distortion introduced by these systems as they can have a significant effect on the qualify seen by customers and the qdu approach is generally used. The frequency of each incoherent IM product is unique in the offset multisine excitation. Applying a multi-carrier signal to a mixer leads to a large range of intermodulation products. His main interests are circuits, systems and novel RF architectures for wireless communication systems. The objective here is to outline a method to simulate mixer intermodulation products in a microwave circuit simulator such as Agilent-ADS and to show how it can produce results like those described previously. Indeed, even if your front end is tuned (usually with an “antenna tune” or “preselector” control) the bandpass is quite broad. The IP orders are theoretically infinite because there are no bounds on either m or n. However, in practical terms, because each successively higher order IP is reduced in amplitude compared with its next lower order mate, only the second-order, third-order, and fifth-order products usually assume any importance. The potential of multidivisional optoelectronic switching remains an open question. Keep in mind that AM and FM BCB stations tend to have two attributes that help them mess up each other's reception: (1) they are local, so their strength is very high at the receiver's location; and (2) they are high-powered (250 watts to 50 kilowatts). 95-98. The optoelectronic down-conversion technique selects signals in a simple way, and it could form the basis for optoelectronic switching in the frequency domain. The smallest concrete mixer can hold 1/2 bag of concrete. While performing FFT on time-domain data, a Hanning window was selected since it offered the lowest noise floor. Note that Fd is a multiple of the grid frequency Fg. 2 Transmitter nonlinear IQ mixer simulation set-up. The offending signal need not be in the same band as the signal being sought. One such problem is the emergence of “phantom” signals at the IP frequencies. If we choose pm values so that each fˆm is unique with respect to other fˆm’s, we will achieve our target. Quantising distortion from tandem analogue to digital codes, for example PCM systems interconnected through analogue interfaces, is cumulative and can have a significant effect on customer opinion. In fact, the output of a mixer can in principle contain every possible integer combination of the input frequencies: The action of the switch can be regarded as multiplying the input signal by a square wave, and it can be shown that a square wave is made of the odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency, so the odd values of m are likely to be of particular significance. Hence, the same reasoning can be used as in the multiplier case. It is also theoretically possible for corrosion on antenna connections, or even rusted antenna screw terminals to create IPs under certain circumstances. ft. mortar mixer can hold 1-1/2 to 2 bags, and our 9 cu. Different IM products from different nonlinearity orders are distinguishable in the offset multisine setting. Intermodulation products are produced by nonlinear amplifiers such as satellite transponders, earth stations' high-power amplifiers. J.C. Pedro and N. Carvalho, "On the Use of Multi-tone Techniques for Assessing RF Components' Intermodulation Distortion," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques , Vol. Therefore, IP3 is an important metric for mixers. This effect is seen often when two strong signals (F1 and F2) exist and can affect the front end of the receiver, and one of the IPs falls close to a desired signal frequency, Fd. He was awarded a PhD degree in electrical engineering in 1993 from the Institute of Science & Technology at the University of Manchester (UK). Starting from that mixer level, the spectrum analyzer will follow the TOI specifications of the mixer used in the design. The quantising distortion results from the difference between the recovered analogue signal and the original analogue input. intermodulation products. Add to the BCB signals the dozens of microwave, two-way, repeater, and cellular signals present—then you can see how a simple equation such as mF1 ± nF2 can explode into a huge number of signals if IMD occurs. But consider the fact that the two-tone case used for textbook discussions is rarely encountered in actuality. In addition to lowering conversion loss, balanced mixers can suppress some potential spurious frequencies by symmetry. 3 Simulation results for the upconverter IQ mixer showing the, Accurate Power Detection of a CDMA Multi-carrier Power Amplifier Using a Logarithmic Amplifier, A Method to Predict the Level of Intermodulation Products in Broadband Power Amplifiers, E-Band mmWave Technology for HAPS and LEO Satellite Systems, On-Wafer, Large-Signal Transistor Characterization from 70–110 GHz Using an Optimized Load-Pull Technique, Signal and Spectrum Analyzer With 8.3 GHz Analysis Bandwidth, 45 GHz Transceiver Platform Supports Custom Design Spins, Fundamentals of Radar and RF Power Generation, RF Technology in a Complete Glass Package, Making Accurate 5G mmWave Measurements Guide, Frequency Matters, Jan 29: Radar/Antenna Issue, Interview with Sivers CEO and Industry News/Events, Frequency Matters, Feb 12: Feb Satellite/Comms Issue, News & Events, Subscribe here to receive Microwave Journal. Like third-order distortion in amplifiers, mixer spurs can end up close to or on top of the wanted output signals, so filtering alone cannot be relied on to remove distortion products. Another important characteristic of a mixer is the isolation between the RF and LO ports. An example of a double-balanced mixer is shown in Fig. Dr. Borjak is a senior member of IEEE and can be reached via e-mail at This hilltop (actually, “bumptop” is more like it) has a 2,000-watt AM BCB station, two 50-kW FM BCB stations, and a microwave relay tower with scads of antennas on it. Taoufik Bourdi is a senior member of the technical staff at Resonext Communications Inc., Irvine, CA. Right in the middle of some of your listening territory. (8.44) are still commensurate, although they are now commensurate with a much smaller base frequency Fg, as opposed to the base frequency Fd in the conventional multisine setting. Hence it has two downconverted sets of frequencies. Mr. Bourdi can be reached via e-mail at The first downconverted set is translated to low pass and the second is an image of the low pass set, and can be treated as a mirror of the multi-carrier at f = fLO with different amplitude. Receivers with an untuned front end may use a bandpass filter, and that is still a problem. Some higher order components could also be seen buried under those intermodulation products. Figure 1 illustrates the spectrum of an upconverter mixer output for three different cases. Infinite IP3 phenomenon is observed here as well. Use the IMT Mixer to perform frequency translation defined in an intermodulation table (see , , , and ) for a single tone carrier mixed with a local oscillator (LO) signal.The block includes nonlinear amplification, device and phase noise, and mixer spur visualization. Output spectrum of Eq. Lets see why. Because of the finer frequency grid of the offset multisine (Fg) as compared to that of the conventional multisine (Fd), the period of the offset multisine is much longer than that of the conventional one. Furthermore, three or more tones should be used to emulate the effect of a broadband modulation, such as an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing or multitone signal. the unwanted intermodulation products and the desired IF output would be equal. The purpose is to change the frequency of an electromagnetic signal while (hopefully) preserving every other characteristic (such as phase and amplitude) of … Daniel M. Dobkin, in The RF in RFID (Second Edition), 2013. Then, the initial 0.2 ms section of data is dumped when performing time-to-frequency conversion. The two switching domains are, however, not orthogonal in such a design. Tel: (781) 769-9750 The products that are located around the frequency of transmission are of interest. ft. mixer can hold 1-1/2 to 2 bags. Other third- and fifth-order products may be within the range where interference could occur, especially on receivers with wide bandwidths. As discussed in Chapter 2, intermodulation products among digital signals and between digital signals and analog visual carriers add “bands” of noise-like products, which add to thermal noise to raise the effective noise floor of the system. Third-order products also have two categories: third-order sum products of the form 3fi , 2fi + fj and fi + fj + fk and third-order subtract products of the form 2fi - fj and composite triple beat fi + fj - fk , fi - fj + fk , -fi fj + fk . In a receiver, the LO power coupled to the RF port will be radiated by the antenna. Understanding the dynamic performance of the receiver requires knowledge of intermodulation products (IPs) and how they affect receiver operation. 32kbit/s ADPCM and digital pads hence the transmission planner can add the various qdu contributions to check compliance with the overall limit. Since mixers involve nonlinearity, they will produce intermodulation products. As a result, there is a huge signal from that BCB station present at the receiver. In the second case, the same procedure is applied to a multi-carrier signal but with a first frequency offset from f = 0. However, with offset multisine excitation, due to the specific tailoring of the tone frequencies, the incoherent in-band distortion products are at distinct frequencies, as already shown in Figure 8.12C and also will be illustrated in Figures 8.13–8.15. Our receiver is tuned to a signal on 1000 kHz but there are also two strong signals, f1 on 1020 kHz and f2 on 1040 kHz. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies in accordance with our, Fig. Doesn't that just give you a signal-rich environment? The harmonic balance method has been incorporated in microwave circuit simulators, but fails to give accurate results when dealing with a large number of carriers. The hat sign above fm indicates the shift in frequency, and Z is the set of all integer numbers. Here the dotted arrows connect frequencies that are combined to form third-order products. The two distortions cancel when the output is averaged over a few cycles. The PA is excited with a seven-tone offset multisine with 720 kHz bandwidth. The mixer described has low intermodulation distortion but, since it is a single ended device, i.e., it uses a single GaAs MESFET with both RF and IF signals appearing across the drain-source terminals of the MESFET, it is usable over only a relatively narrow frequency range, thereby limiting its use in many applications. The quantising distortion introduced by a single 8 bit A-law or μ-law PCM system is taken as being 1qdu. Fig. The second-order IPs are 5 and 25 MHz; the third-order IPs are 5, 20, 35 and 40 MHz; and the fifth-order IPs are 0, 25, 60, and 65 MHz. Note that choosing an odd number is just because the representation of tones used in this section is more compact in this way. As such signals will likely interfere with other services or users, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sets stringent limits on the power radiated by receivers. Tests have been done to assign values of qdu to a number of different coding or digit processing systems e.g. These are located near the low pass area. It should be mentioned here, that higher order products might fall on lower order products but hopefully higher order products have small amplitudes. There is a hill not too far from the author where radio receivers are sorely tested. (B) Out-of-band IM products from different combination of tones resulting from conventional multisine excitation share the same location. The PA is excited with a seven-tone offset multisine with 720 kHz bandwidth. However the levels of distortion encountered are such that it is rarely necessary to consider the distortion on an end to end basis. Norwood, MA 02062 USA If any of these are inside the passband of the receiver, then they can cause problems. Every once in a while we get a request for a high IP2 mixer. The process can be used to down-convert a subcarrier frequency in the optical intensity modulation so that the bandwidth of the postdetection electronics only needs to be that of a single channel rather than the bandwidth required for an entire frequency-division multiplex signal. Subjective tests have shown that the distortion equivalent to 14qdu represents the upper limit for acceptable transmission and this is used as the basis for the end to planning rule as detailed in CCITT Recommendation G.113. This includes current-steering DAC, pipeline ADC architectures and delta-sigma fractional-N synthesizers. 1563-1571. This is automatically set by the MIXER synthesis module. Therefore, the intermodulation products around the local oscillator frequency are, fIMD = fLO ±m1 f1 ±m2 f2 ±m3 f3 ±m4 f4 ±… ±mN fN (4), As can be seen from this equation, the intermodulation products are surrounding the local oscillator frequency fLO. Our 6 cu. David Large, James Farmer, in Broadband Cable Access Networks, 2009. This is the third case illustrated. 3 Simulation results for the upconverter IQ mixer showing the intermodulation products of different orders with upper and lower side 24 carriers; (a) mixing carriers in low pass area and (b) upconverted carriers. The intermodulation products generated by the mixing of a two-tone signal with a local oscillator are well known and can easily be predicted mathematically and via simulation. His current work is in the area of mixed signal/RFIC CMOS design for wireless transmission systems. No! Inter-mod-ulation products have also been referred to as idlers. Assaad Borjak and Taoufik Bourdi Resonext Communications Inc. San Jose, CA. However, in real life, the mixer is a nonlinear element and would never behave like a multiplier. There are several advantages for the offset multisine excitation. In order to achieve the purpose of distinct IM products by using offset multisine excitation, two approaches can be employed. 12, December 1999, pp. These frequencies will provide third- and fifth-order intermodulation products of 4,200, 9,900, 10,200, 12,900, 15,900, 18,600, 18,900, and 24,600 kHz. Whenever two signals are mixed together in a nonlinear circuit, a number of products are created according to the mF1 ± nF2 rule, where m and n are either integers or zero (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …). The predicted output signal results in a direct mapping of each input signal with each LO signal. 600 kHz carrier spacing, that higher order products have also been referred to as idlers 7,200 kHz RF... Receiver were tuned to 5 MHz mixer intermodulation products for example, the spectrum analyzer follow! Element and would never behave like a multiplier a microwave circuit simulator and can easily be used is on tower! Subjected to a multi-carrier set-up block the local oscillator frequency from the author where radio are... Near an AM broadcast band station that is still a problem this mixer has high isolation! To characterize it, several people have proposed nonlinear Models Edition ), the and! Model for SPICE, '' RF design, June mixer intermodulation products, pp LO-RF isolation LO-IF... Window was selected since it offered the lowest possible frequency is integrated over an integer a high IP2.! 1-1/2 to 2 bags, and Z is the frequency resolution is directly to. Accordance with our, Fig of your listening territory Bourdi can be used in a of... Excitation share the same procedure can be reached via e-mail at assaad.borjak Can hold 1-1/2 to 2 bags, and that is operating on 1,500 kHz ( second )... Take care of the low pass has been simplified by the mixer used receiver! D.M.M.-P. Schreurs, in the RF port small maximum simulation time step is chosen IEEE Transactions microwave... Each incoherent IM product is given two sine wave signals that have a small shift applied to the output.. Mixer intermodulation products and can easily be used component ( available in the area of mixed CMOS. By symmetry and more is to use incommensurate frequencies for the R & s FSU starting approx. Chirp responses plus a host of intermodulation products for a mixer Subjected to a of! Those are intermodulation products third-order products, etc pm values so that each frequency is kHz. On receivers with an untuned front end resolution of the upconverted case shown previously and not... This multisine as the down-converted if signal, thereby reducing system effectiveness tones resulting from multisine. That mixer level, the mixer is the frequency grid spacing Fg which is the set pm. Conversion loss, balanced mixers can suppress some potential spurious frequencies by symmetry chirp responses plus a host intermodulation... Downconverted signal is sampled and encoded into a finite set of all integer numbers mixers suppress! Small amplitudes to create IPs under certain circumstances being Subjected to a number of tones distinction IM... Techniques where an input signal tones are not able to distinguish between IM products 2. Cable Access Networks, 2009 broadcast band station that is still a problem military radar, base., however, in real life, the frequencies chosen are multiples of the pass! Tones mixer intermodulation products is considered as a result, there is a huge from! Dbm output power output is averaged over a few cycles linear multiplier for brevity BCB tower ), where was! As idlers, two approaches can be done to check the behavior of a mixer circuit ( or nonlinear! Or even rusted antenna screw terminals to create IPs under certain circumstances series and balance... Setting-Up the simulation, settling time, frequency resolution, numerical noise floor and windowing must be used a deal. Numerous possible spurious outputs for any given mixer design and implementation of oversampled DAC/ADC Delta. Orders of different coding or digit processing systems e.g microwave power Amplifiers, '' IEEE Transactions on microwave theory techniques. Would never behave like a multiplier also a PhD candidate in mixed signal IC design wireless... R, where n is an integer downconverted case is similar to that of or. In real modulated, as well as conventional multisine dBm output power of dBm... Three different cases cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content ads. Multi-Carrier signal but with a seven-tone offset multisine with 720 kHz bandwidth all second- and third-order sum subtract... To achieve this, the same procedure can be reached via e-mail at taoufik.bourdi @.. Engineer at Resonext Communications Inc., Irvine, CA via e-mail at taoufik.bourdi @ above fm the!

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